`Ōlelo – `Āina (Land)

     
  ahupua`a – the literal translation is “pig altar”, and it defines a triangular division of land that runs from the mountain (mauka) to the sea (kai). A  “pig altar” (a rock with a pig’s head made out of kukui leaves) was raised on the shore to indicate the boundaries of the ahupua`a.

Each ahupua`a was home to an extended family (`ohana) of 30 to 100 people, ruled by chiefs (ali`i nui) and bosses (koho hiki) whose responsibility (kule`ana) was to care for the Gods, the land, and the community.

The upper, rainforest region (waonahele) of the ahupua`a was where the land pulled water from the sky, providing wood and medicines. The center region (kula uka) was where fertile lands were used for agriculture. And the region by the shore (kula kai) was for fishing, and where most of the houses (hale) were located.

 
                   
  The Land     The Sea        
 

awāwa – valley
kahawai
– river
kalo – taro
`ohe – bamboo
`one – sand
lua pele – volcano
pali – cliff
pua
– flower
wai – fresh water
wailele – waterfall

`ekaha – seaweed
he`e – octopus/squid
hono – turtle
i`a
– fish
kahakai
– beach (close to the sea)
kai – ocean, salt water
koholā – whale
moana
– deep blue ocean (the deepest part)
manō – shark
nalu – waves

 
                   
  The Sky   Weather      
 

ānuenue – rainbow
ao
– cloud (pronounced owl)
hōkū – star
– sun
mahina – moon
manu – bird

aulu – a rough, raging sea wind
awa – fine rain or mist
hālūlā – calm, stillness
`olu – a cool breeze
pulepe
– heavy, drenching rain
pāki`o – showery rain

 
                   
             
   
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