ERA OF OVERTURNING
Twelve generations from the beginning of the race,
on the genealogy of Kumuhonua, during the so-called Era-of-overturning
(Po-au-hulihia), occurs the name of Nu‘u, called also Nana-nu‘u, Lana-nu‘u,
Nu‘u-mea, Nu‘u-mehani. He is called "a great kahuna" and in his time
came the flood known as Kai-a-ka-hina-li‘i, which may be translated as
"Sea caused by Kahinali‘i" or as "Sea that made the chiefs (ali‘i) fall
down (hina)." Nu‘u himself is called Ka-hinali‘i from this catastrophe,
and after the flood he is known as Ku-kapuna, his wife as Ku-kekoa, and
their three sons have names of winds that bring rain (nalu).
The story of Nu‘u as told to the missionaries
shows a decided tendency to strain after biblical analogy.
(a) Fornander version. Nu‘u builds
"a large vessel and a house on top of it" called
Wa‘a-halau-ali‘i-o-ka-moku. In this he is saved from the flood and after
its subsidence Kane, Ku, and Lono enter the house and send him outside,
where he finds himself on the summit of Maunakea on Hawaii at a place
where there is a cave named after his wife Lili-noe. He worships the
moon with offerings of awa, pig, and coconuts, thinking this is the god
who has saved him. Kane descends (some say on a rainbow) and explains
his mistake and accepts his offerings. In this version, as told on the
island of Hawaii, he has three sons and his wife is named Lilinoe.
Others say her name is Nu‘umealani. Some think he lands in
Kahiki-honua-kele, "a large and extensive country."
(b) Kepelino version. Nu‘u, called
Nu‘u-pule (Praying Nu‘u) because he makes sacrifice to God, lives in the
land Kahiki-honua-kele, in the mountains where Kumuhonua was made by
God. This is after the flood, which came as a punishment for the sin of
Kumuhonua. He built a Wa‘a-halau-ali‘i-o-ka-moku and survived the flood,
in which his brother-in-law and those others who jeered at him
Although Hawaiian tradition knows of the flood of
Kahinali‘i and the term Wa‘a-halau-ali‘i-o-ka-moku is familiar to old
Hawaiians and may be translated "Canoe like a chief's house," the idea
of a houseboat such as the legend describes is not a native tradition.
Old people on Hawaii told Ellis that "they were informed by their
fathers that all the land had once been overflowed by the sea, except a
small peak on Maunakea, where two human beings were preserved from the
destruction that overtook the rest, but they said they had never heard
of a ship or of Noah, having always been accustomed to call it the
The story of a flood in which two are saved on the
summit of Mauna-kea has been told in connection with the myth of the
underseas woman drawn up to become wife of a chief of Hawaii. Her father
is Kahinali‘i and her mother is named after the waves of the ocean. The
brothers in the form of oopu fishes make the ocean waters rise to cover
all mountain-tops except that of Mauna-kea, where the chief, his wife,
and his family are saved. The name of Kahinali‘i is to be recalled as
that of the father (or mother) of Pele in the flood version of her
migration myth, when the mother accompanies her in the form of a wave
and the brothers shout at the appearance of a sea that covers the flat
island of Kahoolawe. It is natural to suppose that such a legend would
arise about a volcanic deity whose activities are likely to be
accompanied by inundations. Among the Maori the mythical mother of the
Pacific Ocean is a deity known by the name of Para-whenua-mea, an
epithet said to refer to the devastation due to flood and closely
resembling Pele's familiar chant name of Pele-honua-mea.
A biblical version of a flood story recorded by
White from the Maori gives the name to a prophet who survives the flood
on a raft upon which a house has been built, and elaborate flood stories
outside the Polynesian area lay stress upon this house building.
White (Maori) version. Para-whenua-mea
and his son Tupu-nui-a-uta build a raft and put a house upon it with
food of fern-root, sweet potato, and dogs, and they pray for rain and
all are drowned except those in the raft. After pitching about on the
sea for eight moons they land on dry earth at Hawaiki and pay homage to
Qat (Banks islands) version.
Qat takes his departure from the world Gana. Here he builds a great
canoe on the plain. His brothers laugh at him and ask how he will ever
get it down to the sea: He takes into the canoe his own family and
living creatures of the island, "even those so small as ants," and shuts
himself inside while he prays for rain. A deluge follows which tears a
channel to the sea and he makes off, taking with him the best things of
the island and leaving a lake where the plain had been. He is expected
to return and foreigners arriving at the island have been taken for Qat
and his brethren.
Thomson (Fiji) version. The
twin grandnephews of Ndengei, the serpent god of the Kauvandra mountain
on Viti-levu to whom men are indebted for fire, good crops, rain, and
victory in war, have a pet pigeon which is their delight. During their
absence Ndengei secures the pigeon to waken him in the morning with its
cooing. The boys are angry and shoot the pigeon dead with the bow called
"summer lightning." Ndengei proclaims war but Rokolo, head of the
carpenters' clan, builds an impregnable fortress. Ndengei's seer dreams
that if a vungayabi tree that stands near the wall is cut down the
fortress can be taken. A flood follows the cutting of the tree, the fort
capitulates, and the carpenters are exiled. They sail away and establish
their craft on Rewa. For the boys Rokolo builds a wonderful boat called
Na-wa‘a-nawanawa (The lifeboats) and they sail westward and are never
heard of again, although it is prophesied that they will return.
Brewster gives a song-and-dance version of the
myth called the Meke of Turukawa (Song of the pigeon). He adds that it
is because of the scattering of the carpenters over the islands that
Fiji outrigger canoes and Fiji woodwork excel throughout the Pacific.
Tongans learned the art from the Fijians. The place is shown where the
"ark" was built by Rokolo. The river Rewa gushed from the roots of the
sacred myrtle when an arrow was shot into it. In the Lau islands it is
said that the god of carpenters shot Ndengei's cock with an arrow and
Ndengei sent a flood. In Tonga the story goes that Tangaloa Tufunga, god
of carpenters, who fished up the Tonga group, 7
came down with his son from heaven and built on Fiji an impregnable
fort. A Fijian god sent rain and floated the fort away with the
carpenters inside, and thus the carpenters came to be scattered over the
earth. In Dobu a magic mango tree closes up when an attempt is made to
fell it, but when finally felled its fall is followed by a flood. A myth
of a tree rooted in the waters of the underworld is reported also for
Hawaii by Mrs. Pukui, who had it from Ka-wahine-hula of Waipio valley:
Up Waipio valley is a kupua kawau tree which grows
over the waters of Ra-wai-o-ulu (The water of growth [life]) and holds
these waters together with its great roots. Were it not for this tree
the water would fill the valleys of Waipio and Waimanu.
In the Marquesas a tree is planted over
Tohe-tika's head to prevent his ever rising again. He causes it to rain
and washes away the tree and drowns all the people.
No natural catastrophe of this kind occurs in
Polynesia without an explanation in the vengeance of an aggrieved god.
Para-whenua-mea prayed for the flood because men would not listen to the
teachings of Tane. The Maori say that in the days of Mataiho (Mataaho),
Puta caused the land to be turned upside down so that all were destroyed
because they would not listen to his teaching. Another Maori story says
that a woman lifts a bit of tongue from a tapu oven and eats it and in
consequence the whole two thousand of her tribe are overwhelmed in a
flood to appease the wrath of the sea monster (taniwha) who is the
guardian of the fishing ground. In the Tuamotus, the spirit of the
murdered Temahage, called Overturner-of-earth, is aided by his
grandfather to submerge the island of Taiero, whose people were
responsible for his death, and the neighboring islands. Tana-oa
overturns the island Fatu-uku and drowns everybody upon it because he
overhears himself criticized by his wife's family; only he himself and
his wife escape.
The escape of a single couple or of a family group
who have heeded the god's warning is a common ending to South Sea flood
stories. A particular turn is given to some Tahitian versions where the
husband proposes a more likely place of escape and the wife insists upon
following the god's advice. The type is found on the island of Maui,
where a low hill on the southwest side of the island which has escaped
flooding by an old lava stream is explained as the place where a couple
took refuge on the insistence of the wife during a volcanic eruption.
Maori. Rua-tapu, child of Ue-nuku at Aotea,
is angry because his father places the brother born of a royal mother
ahead of himself, who is born of a slave mother. He takes a boatload of
young chiefs far out to sea and drowns them all; only Paikea escapes.
Rua-tapu promises to return "in the great nights of the eighth moon" and
bids the people retire to the mountain in order to escape destruction.
At the appointed time he comes upon the land in the form of a rushing
tidal wave and all are drowned who have remained by the sea.
Tahiti. Two friends go to fish and disturb
the spot sacred to a sea deity called Rua-hatu-tini-rau in whose hair
the hook is tangled. He is appeased by their prayers and bids them
assemble all the royal family on a little reef as the land is to be
submerged in revenge for the breaking of his tapu. Some scoff, but all
the royal family are saved.
Ruahatu, asleep in the sea bottom, is caught in
the hair by a fisherman's hook and in anger sends a flood, but, pacified
by the fisherman's offerings, tells him and his wife that they will be
safe if they go to Toamarama islet. The man suggests climbing the
mountain but the wife dissuades him and they alone are saved.
Long ago Tahiti-nui and Tahiti-iki were submerged
and, except for the birds and insects preserved by the gods, only a
single couple and the things they saved survived. The man proposes
fleeing to the lofty peak of Orohena, the woman foresees that it will be
flooded and directs their way to Pito-hiti. This is the only land that
emerges between Tahiti and Moorea. After ten nights the rain ceases.
They remain in a cave in the mountain until the heavens are calm and
clear. Nothing but bare earth remains on the land and they have nothing
to eat but fish and red earth. Twins are born, and the third day a third
child. Eventually Tahiti and Moorea are repeopled and plants and trees
grow up and bear fruit and cover the ground.
Andaman. Minni Cara once broke some
firewood in the evening. A great storm came and killed many people and
turned them into birds and fishes. The water rose up over the trees.
Minni Cara and Minni Kota took the fire in a cooking pot and went up the
hill to a cave where the fire was kept alight until the storm was over.
The form of the name Kai-a-Kahinali‘i is used by
the Maori in speaking of Te-tai-o-Uenuku, or -o-Ruatapu, son of Uenuku. Uenuku
was "a very celebrated high priest and ancestor of many Maoris, living
in Ra‘iatea, Tahiti, and Rarotonga at the time of the great migration to
New Zealand in the 14th century." He stopped civil war, bloodshed, and
cannibalism, says Skinner. A tidal wave in the Marquesas is called Tai-Toko,
possibly from the ancestor Toko from two of whose twelve sons the
Marquesans claim descent.
In myth it is difficult to say in individual cases
whether terms like Kai-a-kahinali‘i refer literally to an inundation or
tidal wave sweeping the land, a catastrophe which occurs all too often
in the South Seas, or are to be taken figuratively as an invasion of
some sort, the downfall of one leading family and its gods and the rise
of another. Although tidal waves on the high islands are not so
disastrous as the myth would represent, a small inhabited coral island
is subject at irregular intervals to a complete inundation from which a
small remnant may escape by clinging to the tops of the coconut trees.
Churchill records an earthquake which sunk the land where two thousand
lived, and there are records throughout the South Seas of occasions in
which whole islands have disappeared utterly. In the Hawaiian group the
sinking of populated coastal areas due to earthquakes or other volcanic
phenomena must have left its traces upon old tradition. Such an area on
the Hilo coast still shows the tops of submerged coconut trees which
once grew on firm land. Another important area pointed out by tradition
is the coast about the hill Kauiki in Hana, East Maui, where Kane and
Kanaloa are supposed to have made their home. It is possible that the
subsidence of this thickly populated area at a time of volcanic eruption
resulted in the rise of a rival power on Hawaii under a reorganized
priesthood which sought cooperation with the goddess Pele.